Thursday, May 28, 2020
Burj Khalifa in Dubai Engineering Research Assignment (Essay Sample) Content: Students name:Instructor:Course name:DateBurj Khalifa in DubaiIntroductionThe Burj Khalifa tower is known to be the tallest building in the world. It is in Downtown Burj Dubai, and it is about 830 meters high, covering an area of almost 280 thousand square meters with over 160 floors within the structure. The project began on 6/1/2004 and came to an end on 1/10/2009, but it was officially opened on 4/1/2010 as a project of mixed-use developments in the United Arab Emirates. The government's principal aim of coming up with the building was to attain multiplicity in the countrys economy and also to achieve the international fame of the country worldwide (Goldsworthy 45). The building was designed by the great architect Adrian Smith and the great structural engineer Bill Baker, who together assimilated the pattern of the Islamic architecture to produce a modified design of Burj Khalifa. It as a buttress based design to anchor the extraordinary height of the structure an d also an insulating system to cover up the countrys high temperatures in the summer season. Burj Khalifa building is installed with over 50 elevators plus some escalators to convey people at different floors within the building.Architectural designThe major design idea of the building is a triaxial geometry with a spiraling pattern that mimics the spiraling pattern system of the grand mosque in Samarra with a broad base and a narrow top. Its Y-Shape design allows for natural illumination inside the building during the daytime. The structure has a continuous decreasing trend in the cross-sectional length from floor to floor as it ascends upwards towards the clouds (Kallen 67). It has a core buttress system that is made up of hexagonal base supported with an auxiliary buttress that gives it a tri-axial shape thus anchoring the building firm on the ground. The wall is made of the high-performance concrete with significant strength and stability. The corridors of each floor extend from the central core and ends at the wings of the building with various unique patterns. The building has a spire constructed of structural steel that weighs an average weight of more than 4500 tons while the core pinnacle pipe averages 360tons.The interior is decorated with artworks that consist of cymbals that are made of bronze and brass alloys resembling all the nations in the whole universe. The insulation mechanism is designed to control the extraordinarily high temperatures during the summer season in Dubai. It is made of extensive reflective glazing reinforced with stainless steel spandrel plates, aluminium, and perpendicular hollow flippers. The cladding process in the outer phase of the structure was done using over 25000 glass panes. The glass work protects or controls the natural heat and light penetrating through into the building. The building is installed with over 59 elevators and escalators conveying people in various floors within the structure at an impressive speed of about 11meters per seconds both upwards and downwards. The building has both the single and double deck elevators. However, the triple deck elevator is still in progress. The elevators are designed using LCD displays to relieve the feeling of monotony during the conveyance period, especially from the ground floor to the topmost floor.The major framework of the Burj Khalifa building is highly supported with high-performance concrete. During the construction of the uppermost towers, the engineers had to depend on the great work of Putzmeister, who came up with the supersonic concrete pump trailer that could pump the very large amount of concrete mixture over great distance vertically. It was also used to lift the heavy stainless steels to the uppermost floor for the construction of the spire though the very topmost section was constructed using a less heavy stainless steels.The foundation of Burj Khalifa building was constructed using a large and heavy amount of concrete with heavy and durable stainless steels for reinforcement of the platform. The average amount of concrete used in the construction of the foundation alone was over 40000 square meters with a weight of approximately more than 100000 tons. The foundation consumed more than 190 piles with each pile measuring one and a half meter in cross-sectional length and 45 meters long. According to the parameters used in the construction of the foundation, the statistics show that it averages a total weight of about 500000 tons. The concrete used in the foundation was designed to have a high density with very minimal permeability. The foundation itself has got a highly efficient cathodic protection system that assists in the prevention of the damaging effect from the corrosive and highly reactive chemicals present in the underground water.The Burj Khalifa building is extensively clustered in that it is designed to have an air conditioned emergency floors at an interval of every 35 floors to safety purposes. The concrete used at each and every floor...
Saturday, May 16, 2020
In analyzing the second reason listed for why outsourcing is used; Ã¢â¬Ëinability to attract the highest caliber of employees to job functions that may be peripheral to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s core disciplineÃ¢â¬â¢, companies employ a different kind of outsourcing tactic. This reason leads to offshore outsourcing solutions. If a company cannot attract high caliber domestic employees to job functions secondary to their main function then they seek help where labor may be less expensive and more efficient. Offshoring attracts much more criticism when it comes to outsourcing. When a business considers leveraging offshore outsourcing in order to gain a competitive advantage there are a few definitive reasons. Many of those reasons revolve around an inability to hire domestic labor for the required job as mentioned above. The U.S. has high living standards along with strict health regulations that donÃ¢â¬â¢t exist abroad. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of environmental standards is another d ifferentiating factor that gives their workforce a competitive advantage. As a result, China is able to keep their wages so low that itÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimately incomprehensible for business owners to justify not hiring there. China is one of our biggest labor competitors. The reason many US companies go to China for outsourcing is again, because of their workforceÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness to operate at low costs. Michael Zimmerman describes this as a disparity in worker Ã¢â¬Å"toleranceÃ¢â¬ . Where the low wages found in China are Ã¢â¬Å"far lower than U.S.Show MoreRelatedGaining Competitive Advantage Through Outsourcing8392 Words Ã |Ã 34 PagesGaining competitive advantage through outsourcing Authors: Sarah Tagliapietra Peter Platan Ng Seow Li Ralph Schneider Executive Summary Today s escalating, competitive and demanding environment has forced players in the marketplace to be more efficient, to emphasize on a leaner organization and continuously innovate new procedures to keep ahead of competitors. Adding final consumer value to the product or service in the form of lower prices, quality and better service has become an essentialRead MoreEvaluation of the Competitive Advantage That Can Be Gained by Companies through IS/IT Outsourcing829 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmanagement. Third party to manage IT functions for the company. Outsourcing contract is part of the concept of a business process to a third party who has specific skills and services. 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The issueRead MoreOutsourcing : Effect Of Outsourcing1631 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages OUTSOURCING : EFFECTS OF OUTSOURCING IN AMERICA DHANASHREE AROTE 83360 INDEX Serial No. Topic Page No. 1. Introduction 3 2. Benefits of Outsourcing 4. 3. Negative Effects 5 4. Managing Outsourcing 7 5. 6 Key Trends 8 6. Conclusion 8 7. References 9 INTRODUCTION In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s global business competitive environment, business organizations must innovate and adapt new strategies to sustain revenue generation, value while remaining competitive. Organizations have embraced outsourcingRead MoreOutsourcing to Meet Customer Needs663 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagescritical methods is by outsourcing. By outsourcing, they could just focus only in creating better products to meets customer needs. Where, other departments in the company are outsourced. Company gained competitive advantages through real or actual value to customers that they provided. The organizations must know their products, services, customers, competitors, industry, related industries, and environment forces in determining how IT can provide them with competitive advantage. Not to mention, theyRead MoreGlobal Corporations Should Outsource Transactional Hr Functions1593 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescore competencies in the business environment. HR outsourcing has been a prevalent topic since 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s have been outsourcing various HR functions such as legal activity, recruitment, pension, benefits, payroll etc. as a means to cut costs and shift it to the expertise service providers. The literature on HR outsourcing consists of ample evidence that shows the importance of maintaining an in-house strategic function, despite HR outsourcing according to the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s activities in the value chainRead MoreAnz Introduction1227 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessecu rity risk as a consequence of ANZ Bank recent outsourcing strategy. This report discusses three main issues that ANZ BankÃ¢â¬â¢s management may have to consider if it is to enhance strength and core competency. Customer value proposition Firstly, as ANZ Bank has stressed that Ã¢â¬Ëbecomes a super regional bankÃ¢â¬â¢ is a core strategy objective (ANZ 2012), ANZ will have to consider the potential effect for customer value proposition as a result of recent outsourcing strategy. It has been pointed that the problemRead MoreThe Main Threats of IS/IT Outsourcing Essay535 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesCommonly use outsourcing and managed services for their company. Outsourcing of information technology is not new for those who work in the technology and banking sectors. Although this area is new on the IT areas, it is one that may be more prevalent in the workplace, especially when it comes to data security. This is because many banks do not have the expertise to gather all the information effectively. 2.1 Quality control In some cases, these organizations have to pay a high price for qualifiedRead MoreStrategic Outsourcing at Bharti Airtel Limited1532 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages(a). Problem Essay: The main problem Bharti Airtel Limited facing is Ã¢â¬Å"How to manage its capital expenditures for its operations and how to face the expected exponential growth and a competitive environment.Ã¢â¬ The challenges that the company is facing are 1. Keeping pace with expansion: BhartiÃ¢â¬â¢s customer base is growing at 100% per year. It has its mobile operations currently in 15 circles out of 25 in the country and its fixed line operations in 6 circles. So it is a huge challenge to keepRead MoreOutsourcing Of Aviation Maintenance Practices And The Effects Of Globalization1352 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Outsourcing of Aviation Maintenance Practices and the Effects of Globalization Matthew Wilkerson Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Worldwide May 16, 2016 Ã¢â¬Æ' Abstract Within the aviation industry outsourced maintenance practices have become increasingly more prevalent to maintain current assets. There is generally three processes currently being utilized by the airline industry: outsourcing specific maintenance needs, in-house operations, and lastly, a hybrid approach, which entails a combination
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Do you ever wonder what economic policy is? Economic policy is actions that the government takes to influence the economy in different types of ways, or policies. The actions the government takes can include setting interest rates through the federal reserve, who handles all the money in currency. The government can also regulate how much money they use on different expenditures. The government also uses economic policy when they set tax rates. The types of policies are supply-side economics, demand-side economics, and monetary policy. This essay will cover all these policies. The first concept is supply-side economics. Supply-side economics is a theory that economists believe that economic growth can be most successfully created by putting more money into capital. This concept argues that by lowering barriers on production of goods, and services will also help the economy grow. The term supply-side economics was first believed to have been coined by journalist Jude Wanniski in 1 975, but other sources say that the idea originally came President Nixon s former economic advisor Herbert Stein. One way that supply-side economics was utilized in our history was during the presidency of Ronald Reagan. He planned to cut down tax rates by 30% during his presidency. He made this happen by relieving the tax payments of the rich, so they could invest more money in the economy. This stimulated jobs, and economic growth. Throughout his first term, tax rates were cut byShow MoreRelatedFiscal Policy, Crowding out, Supply-side, Economics1957 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Economics Assignment #2 Question I. Fiscal Policy and the Crowding Out Effect. (a) What is the essence of the accounting identity (the so called saving investment identity) that the two distinguished professors refer to? Saving investment identityÃ is a concept in National Income accounting that states that the amount saved (S) in an economy is equal to the amount invested (I). It is an equilibrium expressed in terms of supply (S), andRead MoreThe Economic Policies Of Supply Side Economics1150 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslies within a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economic policy. Economic policy is the actions taken by a government to influence its economy. Types of economic policy actions can include setting interest rates through a federal reserve, regulating the level of government expenditures, creating private property rights, and setting tax rates. Economic policy hopes to accomplish economic growth and a stable economy. More specifically, the federal government hopes to accomplish stable prices, economic growth, and full employmentRead MoreUS Economy Under Reagan in the 20th Century557 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesReagan in the 20th Century The 20th century economics in the United States were heavily determined by ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s economic policies and political legacies, which eventually resulted in free market expansion. Ronal Reagan, the 40th president of the US, contributed significantly to the boom in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. A few of the major things he stressed on included controlling inflation, expanding free market, and established major economic laws and policies. When Reagan took office, the economy was experiencingRead More Supply Side Economics Will Benefit the Economy Essay examples636 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesSupply-Side economics and policies would best benefit the economy in the case of a recession next year. Supply-side policies are made of several important points to regulate the economy. Supply-side policies consist of stimulating the economy by production, cutting taxes, and limiting government regulations to increase incentives for businesses and individuals. Businesses then would invest more and expand to create jobs for people who would save and spend more money. Thus, increased investmentRead MoreSupply Side And Trickle Down Economics1356 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesReaganomicsÃ¢â¬âalso known as supply-side and trickle-down economicsÃ¢â¬âis an economic policy practiced by presidents Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover in the twenties and most recently, by the fortieth president of the United States, Ronald Reagan. Just like the state of the economy before Reagan stepped into office, the economy of the United States today is in a vulnerable place. The economy has taken multiple blows over the last few years: a recession in 2008, a close call in 2011Read MoreThe E conomic Theories Of Supply Side Economics1485 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSupply-side economics is better known as Reaganomics, or the trickle-down economic policy. It is an economic philosophy that conveys the notion greater tax cuts for investors and entrepreneurs provide incentives to save and invest. This economic theory goes further to suggest that in turn, there are economic benefits which will trickle down into the overall economy. The key to answering whether supply side was successful is grounded in a sound understanding of what it is. Like most economicRead MoreThe Decade Of The 1980 S1423 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe decade of the 1980 s experienced a massive sorts of changes in economics and culture, this requires a certain analysis of the time and the way culture became intertwined with economics. The culture transformed and allowed the decade to be read as an experience of cultural products between culture and economy. Through the conspicuous consumption of the decade, the 1980s encouraged a cultural shift towards complete commodification (what is this) and interaction with the market. Ronald ReaganRead MoreThe Impact Of Economic Policies On The Economy1045 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto understand the principles and policies that make up our economy. Although many are unaware, the economic decisions made by the Feds, congress, and the president affect how individuals live, invest, and purchase on a day to day basis. As economic policies fluctuate and the value of the dollar increases or decreases, the demand, supply , and prices of goods fluctuate and determine individual s standards of living and how they consume. Whichever economic policies are currently in effect determinesRead MoreImpact of Reaganomics on the American Economy 1014 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesKeynesian economics to pull itself out of this low. During the election of 1980, Ronald ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign focused on a new stream of economic policy. His objective was to turn the economy into Ã¢â¬Å"a healthy, vigorous, growing economy [which would provide] equal opportunities for all Americans, with no barriers born of bigotry or discrimination.Ã¢â¬ ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s policy, later known as Ã¢â¬ËReaganomicsÃ¢â¬â¢, entailed a four-point plan which cut taxes, reduced government spending, created anti-inflationary policy, and deregulatedRead MoreSupply-Side Economics: History and Relevance2977 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesSupply-Side Economics: Its History and Relevance Today. Ã¢â¬Å"Supply-side economics provided the political and theoretical foundation for a remarkable number of tax cuts in the United States and other countries during the eighties. Supply-side economics stresses the impact of tax rates on the incentives for people to produce and to use resources efficiently.Ã¢â¬ -James D. Gwartney Introduction The theory of supply-side economics has several labels associated with it, some positive and
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the HR Strategy Employed at County General? Answer: HR Strategy Employed at County General Internal Orientation The HR strategy pursued by the Count General is internal labor orientation. The reason is that the increased turnover that is experienced is causing the organization a lot of losses in terms of manpower as well as finances. According to Tortosa Edo et al. (2015), when there are increased turnover in the organization there is a message passed to the organization. The HR strategy is to take care of attrition that occurs due to the labor market. Employees get prone to looking for organizations that offer competitive remuneration. It is with this that the organization through the HR section need to re-examine at the employees remuneration, so that best employee gets retained (Tortosa Edo et al., 2015), Programs to Reduce Turn-over To reduce high turnover experienced, the organization needs to employ programs that make employees stay on the job. These are programs that create an environment that employees will not have the option of leaving the company. The following two programs are best in reducing turnover in the organization. Flexibility Program First is flexibility program. It permits employees to feel that they are of value in the organization; illustrate that their needs get recognized as well as respected. The type of program gives the picture of the organization and thus the prospects. The presentation of work-life balance where there is flexible time is an aspect that creates competitiveness in hiring as well as retaining workforces (Ramaseshan, 2015). On-boarding Program The other aspect of the program that requires being implemented is the onboarding program. It is a type of program that acclimatizes the employee into the culture of the company, essential training, and the expectations that are needed so that they succeed in new positions. The program is essential in that it save the organization in constant investment in workforces who are not suitable for the job (Ramaseshan, 2015). The Stakeholders Benefits of Reducing Turnover The stakeholders are the people who are connected to the company in one way or another. They make the business run since each of them has a role to play. These roles are unique, and the company processes will not run without the stakeholder. There is the reduction of expenses that an organization during recruitment of new employees. When the turnover is low, the organization saves and cut costs that are not expected to take place. The stakeholders, in the long run, will get enhanced proceeds. Additionally, since best talents get retained, clients service provision will not be hindered and hence constant customer flow is constant. On the side of employees, work is not hindered as well. The employees will get to deliver work as expected since all employees are working on assigned task that does not overwhelm. The assurance is that there is productivity which increases. It, in turn, direct to high sales volume to the organization. On the part of management, there will be less administrative costs that come along with employees like healthcare, exit interviews, orientation as well as the costs of training (Schenkel et al., 2015). References Ramaseshan, B. (2015). Effects of realistic job information and interviewer affect on retail employee turnover. In Proceedings of the 1994 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (pp. 181-181). Springer International Publishing. Schenkel, M., Krikke, H., Canils, M. C., van der Laan, E. (2015). Creating integral value for stakeholders in closed loop supply chains. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management. Tortosa Edo, V., Llorens-Monzons, J., Moliner-Tena, M. ., Snchez-Garca, J. (2015). The influence of internal market orientation on external outcomes: the mediating role of employees' attitudes. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 25(4).
Thursday, April 16, 2020
To do this investigation, I agree that I will follow all the risk control methods and conduct the experiment in a very safe condition. The aim of this investigation is to find out more about boil water by using a kettle. For example, time taken to boil different volumes of water, specific heat of water and power of kettle. Equipment: This picture shows all the equipment that I used to do the experiment including a stop watch, a measuring jug and an electric kettle with power between 1850w-2200w. Table 1: Time taken to boil five different volumes of water Volume (L) Time 1 (s) Time 2 (s) Time 3 (s) Average uncertainty time (s) in the average time (s) 0. 25 57 57. 5 58 57. 5 0. 5 0. 5 95 94 96 95 1 0. 75 132 135 134 133. 7 1 1 169 171 168 169. 3 1. 5 1. 25 209 211 212 210. 7 1. 5 To keep the data more accurate, I empty and cooling the kettle thoroughly before doing the next boiling. Diagram 1 Average Time taken to boil water 250 y = 152. 28x + 19. 03 Time (s) 200 150 100 50 0 0 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1 1. 2 1. 4 Volume (L) As shown on the graph, there is a positive relation between time taken to boil water and the volume of water. We will write a custom essay sample on Why does a kettle boil or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The equation for this line is y = 152. 28x + 19. 03. Therefore, the gradient of this line is 152. 28. As initial and final temperature are set at 25. 0o C and 100o C and the power of the kettle is 2025w (middle of the power range 1850w-2200w). Therefore, the heat of water can be calculated by using the equation: gradient = Where gradient is 152. 28, cw = the heat of water, ? T= change in temperature, P= power of the kettle. Therefore, cw = ?T = 152. 28? 2025 100o C? 25. 0o C = 308367 75 = 4111. 56J/kg Ã ° C, which means it costs 4111. 56J of energy to rise 1kg of water by 1Ã ° C Question 1 The reason why boiling water by using an electric kettle without elements are completely underwater is dangerous is that with water level above the element the maximum temperature will reach is 100o C. Otherwise, elements in the kettle will be overheated and burnt down as a result. Since the kettle transfers electrical energy to heat. Or more seriously, the whole circuit might be broken. Question 2 Different kettles may have different shapes and therefore the volume may not be set at a standard level. Instead, measuring jugs are produced under a standard level. Therefore, it would be more accurate to measure a specific volume of water. And as a result, time consumed to boil water would be more accurate with other elements are constant. Question 3 The reason why boil and empty the kettle before recording results is in order to make the kettle as empty as possible and cool the kettle down to the room temperature. Question 5 Cw (Specific heat of water) is the amount of heat per unit of mass needed to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius. Since the Cw that I calculated is 4111. 56J/kg Ã ° C which is close to the standard Cw which is 4200 J/kg Ã ° the Cw I measured was quite C, accurate. Question 6 In order to get a more accurate result, some measuring methods could be improved. For example, fill water at a completely accurate level, precise timing and cool the kettle down to the room temperature after each use of it.
Friday, March 13, 2020
Cosmological Revolution Essay Cosmological Revolution Essay Monday 14th October Cosmological revolution Before the cosmological revolution: Medieval cosmology: The earth was at the centre of the universe The church has the authority The bible contains the actual truth about creation All science must be in line with the Bible The earth is flat The ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s view: Science was based on the BibleÃ¢â¬â¢s account of creation in Genesis Nicholas Copernicus: Born in Thorn, Poland. Had a good education. CopernicusÃ¢â¬â¢ contribution to the astronomical history was large and it had a huge impact. He changed the way of thinking, not only astronomically but also religiously. Catholic teachings were based on an earth centred universe. The earth centred universe was the idea that the universe was earth centred. Another theory was that the earth was in the centre of the universe, and that the other planets including the sun were orbiting around the earth. De revolution Orbium coelestium was written in 1530 but did not publish until after his death in 1543. Copernicus was afraid of the church and their reaction to his discovery. Galileo: Galileo was an Italian physics mathematician astronomer and philosopher. In 1614 Galileo was accused of heresy (beliefs that opposed the Christian doctrine) for his support of the Copernican theory that the sun was at the centre of the solar system. This was revolutionary at the time when people believed that the earth was at the centre. In 1616, he was forbidden by the church from teaching and even promoting such theories. In these times, the idea of space and the universe was completely different to what we know now. Tycho Israhe: Tycho Brahe (1540-1601) was a Danish astronomer who is best known for his discovery of a supernova un the constellation Cassiopeia in 1572. Brahe was a pioneer in developing astronomical instruments and in measuring and fixing the positions of the stars. His observations were the most accurate before the telescopes were found. Cosmological revolution: The cosmological revolution was the change of views. The cosmological revolution did challenge the belief in God as this scientific ideology no longer corresponded to religious belief. Instead this contradicted the biblical beliefs:
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Ethnomusicology - Soviet Music - Essay Example During the recent war Soviet music took on a special and dramatic significance for us and we were all stirred by certain works especially the songs of the Red Army, and Shostakovich's Seventh Symphony, written during the siege of Leningrad which revealed how closely Soviet musicians were bound up with the life and struggles of their people. When the war broke out, composers, instrumentalists and performers of all kinds immediately took to making music for the war. And the Soviet government, realizing how powerful voice music was in rallying the people, never forgot even in the darkest hours to protect its musicians, and enable them to continue their work. All through the war, although half the nation was devastated, millions homeless and starving and the national finances sorely strained, the government continued to appropriate large sums every year to commission the writing of new symphonies, operas and concertos, and to ensure the performance of classic and modern music even though the orchestras and opera companies had to go to Central Asia to do it. 1 There is something awe-inspiring about a nation whose people are suffering untold misery and destruction, that yet continues to give badly needed funds so that artists may be protected and continue their work. And incidentally, the government refused to permit any composers to enter the armed forces feeling they were too precious to be exposed to danger although many volunteered for the Red Army. During the war we began to learn a little of how the Soviet composer lives and works. Life magazine carried pictures of Shostakovich, Gliere, Khatchaturian and other composers on the Composers Farm where they go each summer to raise pigs and write symphonies. We heard that Soviet composers live in a specially constructed house in Moscow, that they have written tremendous amounts of music for the war and other things. 2 Soviet music is organized under a sub-section of the All-Union Committee of Art, which is almost like a department of the government in our country. Each year the Music Section of this Committee of Art receives a certain sum of money from the national Treasury, which it allots among its various departments: orchestras, opera houses, music publication, composers, and so forth. The composers work through what they call the Union of Soviet Composers which is not a trade union in our sense, but a sort of combination of professional guild, commissioning body, an agency to secure performances and publications, a copying bureau, and a fraternal mutual aid society, all rolled into one. The Union consists of some 900 professional composers, both serious and popular composers. To become a member, you write a letter to Gliere, who is president of the Union, stating your qualifications and enclosing a few sample scores. If there is any doubt as to a young musician's eligibility, he is invited to appear in person before a committee on admissions and perform his own works. The Committee then decides; and if you don't get in one time, you can always apply again. The Union is not without standards, and the mere fact that your work is popular and widely performed does not automatically qualify you for admission. Peter Zburski wrote a song which became a tremendous hit during the war, called "The Blue Handkerchief." It was sung from one end of the country to the other. But he was not admitted to the Union of Composers. When a recognized composer wishes to write a work, he submits a project to the Union committee in charge of such things, with an estimate of the length of time it will take. Usually the plan is accepted without much discussion and the composer goes ahead to write his work. Sometimes, however, a composer gets too one-sided for a time, and then the Union committee will suggest that he develop another side of his talent for a time. If a man has been writing too many chamber or theatrical works, they may suggest that he write a symphony.